Starting with the most recognizable object, the anchor. It weighs more than 10,500 kilograms, or 23,00 lbs and is attached to 13 lengths of anchor chain. Each length is 15 fathoms or 90 feet.
The large "odd shaped" object protruding from the front of the ship is the "bulbous bow." Used in most large modern ships with long, narrow hulls such as navy vessels, freighters and passenger ships the bulb modifies water flow around the hull reducing drag and increasing stability and speed. It also improves the "islands per gallon" 🙂 extending range up to 15 percent.
The "fan things" on the side are the bow thrusters. They allow the ship to turn in port. Only used at slow speeds or when stopped, they have reversible propellers to push the ship’s bow to port (left) or to starboard (right). When the bow thrusters are operated together with the pods (located at the stern of the ship) the ship is able to move sideways or turn on a dime.
The last photo is taken from directly under the ship at the bottom of the hull. The 101,353 ton Destiny (the first passenger ship to have exceed 83,676 tons since the Queen Elizabeth launched in 1938) is carefully positioned and lowered on the resting blocks shown in the photo. Then the formerly submerged portions of the ship are cleaned and coated with anti-corrosive and anti-marine growth paint. They've also been using a new hull paint that reduces the ship's drag in the water.
-  ship classification and types (slideshare.net)